Energy Efficient Cities Initiative (EECI)
In February 2003, London, the capital city of the United Kingdom (U.K.), introduced a daily congestion fee for vehicles travelling in the city’s central district during weekdays. This fee was meant to ease traffic congestion, improve travel time and reliability, and make central London more attractive to businesses and visitors.
The case of Curitiba, Brazil, shows that cost is no barrier to ecological and economic urban planning, development, and management. Curitiba has developed a sustainable urban environment through integrated urban planning. To avoid unplanned sprawl, Curitiba directed urban growth linearly along strategic axes, along which the city encouraged highdensity commercial and residential development linked to the city’s integrated master plan and land use zoning.
The City of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, has pursued integrated city planning and management to become a sustainable city (figure 3.20). The city has a comprehensive urban vision, environmental programs, and concrete action plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and tackle climate change. It implements integrated urban planning approaches that consider ecological benefits and efficient resource use.