China’s rapid economic rise over the past two decades has not come without a price. Heavily dependent on coal to fuel its economy, China became the planet’s largest emitter, accounting for almost 30 percent of global carbon emissions in 2014. However, China has committed US$360 billion to clean energy, envisioning that installed renewable power capacity—including wind, hydro, solar, and nuclear power—will contribute to half of new electricity generation by 2020. The World Bank and the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) have been important partners in China’s energy transition. Through lending and policy advice, the World Bank and ESMAP have helped the country tackle multidimensional challenges associated with scaling up cleaner and more efficient sources of energy, lowering the carbon footprint of its cities, allowing China to emerge as a global clean energy leader.